Anatomy of the External Carotid Artery and Its Branches Using Flat-Panel Angiography

F. Torres, F. Montoya, J. Caro, C. Pinto, and E. Bravo

View Article on Neurographics Website

Date of Activity Release: Dec. 1, 2018
Date of Activity Expiration: Dec. 1, 2021

Target Audience:
Intended for neuroradiologists and neuroradiology trainees with varying degrees of experience.

Learning Objective:
Learn and understand the normal anatomy of the external carotid artery
and its branches as seen on flat-panel angiography.

The external carotid artery (ECA) and its branches are frequently involved in different
vascular and tumoral pathologies that affect the brain, head, and neck. There are important
anatomic references that cannot be adequately represented on DSA, a technique commonly
used to characterize the ECA. Flat-panel angiography is a 3-dimensional rotational
angiographic technique that uses a flat panel detector to show highly detailed vascular
anatomy and the adjacent bone structures due to its high spatial and contrast resolutions.
We reviewed 119 angiography and flat-panel angiography studies, and described branches
and courses of the superior thyroid, lingual, facial, ascending pharyngeal, occipital, posterior
auricular, internal maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries. DSA is considered the criterion
standard for the study of the vascular anatomy, but we believe that flat-panel angiography
with MPR is a better method to learn and understand, with a multidimensional platform,
the vascular anatomy of the fine branches of the ECA and their relations with the bone
structures of the skull base.

Commercial Support
No commercial support was received for this activity.

Credit Designation Statement

The American Society of Neuroradiology is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The American Society of Neuroradiology designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Method of Physician Participation:
Each participant will review the corresponding Neurographics article located at Upon completion, each physician will complete and pass a post-test with a score of at least 80% to receive a CME certificate.

All individuals in control of content have disclosed the following relevant financial relationships. All of these relationships were treated as a conflict of interest, and have been resolved (C7 SCS 6.1-6.2, 6.5)

Authors have no relevant financial relationships.





Barton Branstetter 

Editor in Chief

None, N/A

Adam Flanders

Deputy Editor

Royalties, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Robert Quencer 

Consulting Editor

None, N/A

Mark Mullins

Associate Editor

Non-remunerative position, AUR6

Meng Law

Associate Editor

Stockholder, Clinical Imaging

Edward Escott

Associate Editor

Grant, Atherysys, Inc.; Royalties, Thieme Medical Publishers

Scott Faro

Associate Editor

None, N/A

Tina Young Poussaint

Associate Editor

None, N/A

Dheeraj Ghandi

Associate Editor

Grant, Arstasis, Axera Inc.; Consultant, Covidien, EV3

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